Kamis, 15 Januari 2009


Condet adalah sebuah daerah yang terletak di Kecamatan Kramat JatiKota Jakarta Timur. Sejak tahun 1960-an; wilayah Condet terbagi atas tiga kelurahan, yaitu BatuamparKampung Tengah dan Balekambang.

Batuampar adalah sebuah kelurahan yang terletak di kecamatan Kramat JatiJakarta Timur. Kelurahan Batuampar, Kelurahan Balekambang dan kelurahan Kampung Tengah lebih dikenal oleh masyarakat Jakarta dengan sebutan daerah Condet. Kelurahan ini memiliki penduduk sebesar 500.000 jiwa dan luas 125 km2. Batuampar memiliki kode pos 13520

Dulu Condet terkenal dengan wilayah Buah-buahan terutama Salak Condet dan buah Duku bahkan menjadi cagar budaya sekaligus cagar buah-buahan. Namun seiring dengan semakin banyaknya penduduk, kebun-kebun duku dan kebun-kebun salak berubah menjadi pemukiman penduduk. Tapi sekarang status cagar tersebut dicabut dan cagar budaya betawi dipindah ke sekitar Lenteng Agung / Jagakarsa. Maka timbullah ribuan rumah-rumah mewah termasuk rumah pejabat negara didaerah condet, seperti Jendral TNI Fahrul Rozi, Sigit Soeharto (dari tahun 1980-an), Mantan Pangkostrad Alm Letjen Agus Wirahadikusumah (ingat kasus pertemuan Bulak Rantai K-8 tahun 2000?), dll. Sertifikat hak Milik menjadi hal yang mudah di Condet sekarang. Sekarang Condet juga terkenal sebagai tempat-tempat Pelatihan dan Penampungan TKI oleh PPJTKI. Hampir di setiap jalan di Condet kita akan menemukan Rumah yang disewa untuk Penampungan TKI dan TKW.

Air tanah sekualitas bogor, lokasi seperti perbukitan kecil (like cinere), tanah yang masih subur dan lingkungan yang aman karena dikepung perumahan dan markas TNI seperti Komplek Perwira Tinggi TNI Bulak Rantai (timur), Pusat Pelatihan Tentara RINGDAM JAYA (barat), Markas KOPASSUS CIjantung (selatan), Komplek Pasukan pengamanan Presiden (ditengah2), dll..., sangat menarik untuk menjadi tempat hunian yang baik bagi perkembangan anak cucu kita. Sengaja Condet tidak dipublikasikan ke masyarakat Jakarta agar Condet tidak menjadi pemukiman yang kumuh seperti daerah lain di Jakarta. Lokasi Condet yang srategis, hanya 5 menit dari pintu tol Taman Mini dan pintu tol Outher Ring Road, menjadikan Condet sebuah kota kecil di tengah kota besar Jakarta, buktikanlah...

Kelurahan Batuampar berbatasan dengan Jalan Raya Condet / Kelurahan Cililitan di sebelah utara, Jalan Raya Condet / Kelurahan Balekambang di sebelah barat, Jalan raya Bogor / Kelurahan Kramat Jati di sebelah timur dan Jalan Inerbang / Kelurahan Kampung Tengah di sebelah selatan.

Sumber : wikipedia

Involving children in nature conservation

Jakarta Post, Indonesia

During a Sunday afternoon in March, a cool breeze blew in a grove near the edge of the riverbank as 23 primary schoolchildren walked along to observe nature in the Ciliwung Conservation Area in Kebon Pucung, Balekambang, Condet.

A guide told them about local environmental conditions; this was followed by a dialog on garbage disposal near the river and the causes of landslides.

The students were later divided into four groups, each assigned to plant several trees on the open land, only about five to 10 meters away from the muddy Ciliwung. They readily and eagerly opened plastic bags containing seedlings of banana, duku and sapodilla, carefully placing the young plants in the ground while ignoring their dirty hands and shoes.

Called A Tree for a Child, the activity continued for three hours, with 15 trees being planted. The participants, who came from primary schools in Cipinang, East Jakarta, and Penjaringan, North Jakarta, were coordinated by Ibis-Accor Hotel and were guided by young people living in Ciliwung settlements in Balekambang.

Kunkun Julia, administration manager of the hotel, said the tree-planting activity was fostered by the hotel as a form of introduction to conservation in the natural environmental for city children.

Environmental restoration through replanting is a program of the Environment Community Forum (WKLH) of Condet; it is a form of concrete action to rehabilitate the ecosystem of the Ciliwung River.

“We have involved children in this replanting program,” said Budi Setija, secretary of WKLH-Condet. In this way, children will also familiarize themselves with local conditions like landslides along riverbanks and the accumulation of rubbish as topics for further discussion of their causes and effects in seeking solutions.

According to Budi, also an environment activist of Bank Indonesia Academy’s Nature Lover Students (MAPALABI), the program includes entertaining and beneficial activities with the support of facilitators.

“We also organize the release of fish into Ciliwung for visitors to the conservation area,” he added. The fish are expected to reproduce, which will draw people to go angling and give benefit to local residents. The river, he said, had thus far served as a repository for household waste so the restoration was aimed at introducing river ecotourism in the long term.

The same area also offers a one-kilometer nature education and Observation Route that passes through a bamboo forest, salak and banana plantations and finally a riverside garbage disposal site.

Visitors may also observe reptile dens and follow the tracks of these animals. This route is therefore most suited to primary school and kindergarten children.

Another alternative offered by Condet’s river conservation area is Sawung, an acronym for Sekolah Alam Ciliwung, or the Ciliwung Nature School. Alan Jaelani, a teacher of the school, said the subjects included forests, rivers, waste treatment, flora and fauna, as well as leadership and waste-based handicraft making.

“The school opens once a week on Fridays, from 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., with primary schoolchildren as students,” he added.

For the initial phase this school lasts from March through June. “As it is managed on a voluntary basis, no fees are imposed and no honoraria paid to teachers, who are environmental activists,” said Alan, who comes from the Indonesian Environment Lovers’ Action Group (KANCIL-Indonesia).

Sawung students, who simply need to bring notebooks and pens with them, have so far come only from Condet.

Apart from class instruction, the subjects are also taught via interactive discussion, direct observation, field activities and educational games, as a unique form of learning-while-playing education.

This is in conformity with the nature school’s motto: Playing, learning and working”.

(Bambang Parlupi)

Ciliwung ecosystem restored by local people

The Jakarta Post ,  Jakarta   |  Tue, 04/25/2006 10:47 AM  |  Life

Bambang Parlupi, Contributor, Jakarta

The ecosystem of the Ciliwung River across Jakarta has become increasingly critical, with floods inundating riverbank settlements and filling catchment areas with muddy waste in the rainy season, reducing the main stream shallow and impeding the flow of water.

""Besides the dumping of garbage, landslides at several locations have also worsened the Ciliwung's ecosystem. This is noticeable at Condet, East Jakarta,"" said Abdul Kodir Muhamed, 35, an activist of the Condet Environment Community Forum (WKLH).

The river's ecosystem, he maintains, should therefore be restored through remedial work both up- and downstream.

A number of environmental activists in Jakarta, says Kodir, are attempting to restore the river's flow through Condet. With an area of 18,228 hectares, Condet has three sub-districts: Balekambang, Batuampar and Kampungtengah.

The Jakarta administration decided in 1974 decided to make Condet a cultural heritage conservation zone, based on a decree of then governor Ali Sadikin.

In 1979, Condet was officially declared a conservation zone to protect its indigenous Betawi art and culture as well as wildlife and vegetation, like monkeys and some fruit, notably salak (Zalacca edulis) and duku(Lansium domesticum).

In 1986, the area's green belt status was reaffirmed in the light of even more uncontrolled development of housing complexes and business centers.

Pressure from development projects and population growth in Condet has caused damage to the Ciliwung catchment in this area. ""In fact, in the early 1990s the river was still in fairly good condition, with a lot of wild animals roaming around, including long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascucilaris),"" noted Kodir, an 1997 agricultural engineering graduate of Borobudur University, Jakarta.

The present situation, however, gives cause for deep concern as earth is sliding in various locations and household rubbish piling up along riverbanks.

The habitat of some wildlife species is also threatened, forcing lizards to scavenge through trash cans, and pythons to enter backyards in search of prey. Likewise, salak and duku, symbols of Condet's heritage, are also under threat.

""Betawi farmers' fruit plantations now rarely provide good harvests. Environmental changes have renderedsalak and duku unproductive,"" Kodir said. Coupled with the lack of support given by relevant authorities to traditional growers, the land formerly used for plantations has been converted into houses or business places for rent.

To overcome this, Kodir and over a dozen environmental activists have, since 1996, been engaged in restoration by conserving some of Condet's characteristic plants in the Ciliwung Conservation Area in Kebon Pucung, Balekambang. The river catchment is also being rehabilitated by growing trees in phases in landslide-prone parts of the river valley.

These activities are sustained by deriving plant seedlings from surrounding areas according to soil conditions. Kapok, coconut and banyan trees or hard-stemmed fruit trees are known to resist landslide. The second corridor is grown with productive plants like banana or salak, with duku filling the gaps.

The initial phase currently involves the Ciliwung Conservation Area, Kebon Pucung, covering one hectare. The next stage is targeted to include 10 hectares in Condet. ""The main obstacle is obtaining the permission of landowners. In several landslide-prone areas people have often refused to allow replanting,"" said Kodir, hoping that the regional administration would clear critical land for the rescue of Condet's fauna and flora.

Haji Muhamad Amin, 80, from Balekambang, said the fruit plantations along Ciliwung riverbanks had to be maintained. In Kebon Pucung, he said, lizards and beavers could still be found. ""Some people frequently come to hunt lizards and snakes,"" he said. Monkeys have not been seen on river banks for five years, as they are hidden in Batuampar's salak plantations.

Other species observed in the river conservation area are pythons, green snakes (Dryophis prasinus), small lizards and squirrels, and a variety of birds and insects like dragonflies and butterflies.

Sadly, the hunting of lizards and snakes continues alongside streams in the forests to catch them dead or alive for their meat.

Ministry of Forestry Director of Social Forestry Affairs Bili Indra said local residents' replanting efforts were, in effect, a form of support given to the environment and government. In his message on World Forestry Day in the Ciliwung Conservation Area on March 19, he acknowledged that the government could not afford to undertake restoration.

""The rate of environmental destruction in Indonesia is very high compared with the very slow rehabilitation,"" he added. The rescue of Ciliwung's woodlands as urban forests should therefore continue.

Restoration of Ciliwung floodplain imperative

The Jakarta Post ,  Jakarta   |  Tue, 05/08/2007 7:00 AM  |  Life

Bambang Parlupi, Jakarta

Various problems have arisen in the wake of the big floods that hit Jakarta in February. The ceaseless downpours early that month and massive influx of water from the upstream reaches of the Ciliwung river were seen as the causes of the inundations that affected almost 70 percent of the capital, leaving waste and mud covering the riverbanks as far as the downstream shoals of Jakarta Bay.

The area along the riverbank in East Jakarta's Condet region, for instance, has been badly affected by the floods. This location is home to a nature reserve that is promoted by environmentalists. The conservation zone is located in Balekambang subdistrict, Kramat Jati district, East Jakarta.

""The hundreds of trees planted to make a park along the river two years ago are now gone,"" said environmental activist Abdul Kodir Mohammed.

Abdul, who is the chairman of the Condet Environment Community Forum (WKLH) revealed that thousands of other plants had also been destroyed by the floods. The deluges even damaged to the fruit trees typical of Condet -- salak (Salacca edulis) and duku/lanson (Lansium domesticum) -- which are mostly found on the riverbanks.

""Mud and inorganic waste like plastic and cans will hamper the growth of plants, lower the quality of the fruit and even rot the vegetation,"" explained Abdul, who is an agricultural engineer.

The February floods were the biggest in Jakarta for the last 20 years. ""The flood waters reached more than three meters above the normal level of the river, submerging houses and plantations,"" said Ahmad Yani, a Condet resident living on Gang Pucung, Balekambang. ""Rubbish and plastic bags are still hanging from the remaining trees.""

A riverbank landslide also hit Jalan Munggang in Balekambang, leaving only half of the road passable. The part of the road that collapsed was built on a old rubbish dump. So far, the authorities have just put up a notice to keep vehicles out.

For the restoration of the Ciliwung's post-disaster ecosystem, its critical floodplain should be replanted with fast-growing protective plants with strong roots. It is hoped that support for this will be provided by the government, environmentalists and the private sector.

""I do hope some institutions or individuals will help us replant the river's floodplain,"" said Abdul, adding that he and his group had compiled data on several critical areas and made ready hundreds of seedlings.

Apart from that, the existence of salak and duku in the area is under serious threat because, according to Abdul, the land available to fruit growers is shrinking due to economic pressure and rapid development. Both species have been associated with Condet since colonial days and come in a wide range of varieties. Condet's famous salak, for example, comes in 15 varieties that can be distinguished by their tastes, skin colors and stem shapes.

As a fruit grower himself, Abdul hoped that some assistance would be forthcoming for the effort to save the fruit trees. ""One way would be to provide proper compensation to farmers planning to sell or build houses on land that is planted with salak and dukuh,"" he said. In so doing, if an agency was interested to adopting their high-yielding trees for further planting, they would be able to move the fruit trees to a protected area, he said.

Abdul and his group have attempted to conserve local plants by growing salakduku and seedlings of various other plants by generative planting. The fact that intensive plant maintenance is required, and the long time before fruit is produced, are the two main weaknesses of this method. Yet, the group has initiated the planting of over a dozen fruit trees along critical sections of the Ciliwung floodplain, including not onlysalak and duku trees, but also rambutan, jackfruit and guava, to save the river's ecosystem and conserve indigenous species.

Abdul also said that Condet durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) has been difficult to find for the last seven years. Most of the durian trees in Condet have been killed by lightning or felled by owners for the building of houses without any efforts made to grow seedlings.

The Condet administrative region is a nature protection and Betawi cultural preservation zone. With a total area of 18,228 hectares, it comprises the subdistricts of Batuampar, Kampung Tengah and Balekambang. Former Jakarta Governor Ali Sadikin declared Condet a fruit plantation region, with the concept being announced by his successor on Dec. 18, 1975

Salak Condet

Dulu, jenis salak ini banyak tumbuh di kawasan Cagar Budaya Condet, Jakarta Timur. Buahnya agak sulit dibedakan dengan jenis salak lain. Bentuk buahnya bulat telur terbalik mengarah ke bulat. Kulit buahnya bersisik agak besar dan berwarna cokelat sampai kehitaman. Daging buahnya tebal, masir, kesat, dan tak berair serta berwarna putih kekuningan. Rasanya bervariasi, dari kurang manis sampai manis. Salah satu keistimewaan salak condet adalah aromanya yang wangi. Bahkan, harum salak ini sudah tercium dari jarak sekitar 2 m. Ukuran buahnya bervariasi dari kecil, sedang, sampai besar. Produktivitasnya termasuk rendah.

Buah salak dapat dimakan segar atau dibuat manisan dan asinan. Batangnya tidak dapat digunakan untuk bahan bangunan atau kayu bakar. Namun, tanaman salak baik untuk batas kebun sekaligus sebagai pengaman kebun.

Syarat Tumbuh
Salak tumbuh baik di dataran rendah hingga ketinggian 500 m dpl dengan tipe iklim basah. Tipe tanah podsolik dan regosol atau latosol disenangi oleh tanaman salak. Lingkungan yang dikehendaki mempunyai pH 5-7, curah hujan 1500--3000 mm per tahun dengan musim kering antara 4-6 bulan. Pada kondisi lingkungan yang sesuai, tanaman mulai berbuah pada umur tiga tahun. Tanaman salak muda lebih senang hidup di tempat teduh atau di bawah naungan. Oleh karena itu, umumnya salak ditanam di bawah tanaman duku, durian, atau pohon jinjing atau sengon (Albezia sp.).

Pedoman Budidaya
Perbanyakan tanaman: Salak umumnya ditanam dari biji yang diambil dari pohon salak yang bermutu baik. Namun, tanaman dari biji tidak selalu sama dengan sifat induknya (selalu berubah). Tanaman salak mulai berbuah setelah umur 3-4 tahun. Cara lain yang dikembangkan pada saat ini adalah melalui anakan atau biasa disebut "cangkokan". Bibit dibuat dengan membumbungkan (memasukkan) potongan bambu pada pangkal tunas anakan pohon salak unggul tersebut. Potongan botol plastik atau botol infusan juga dapat digunakan sebagai bumbungan. Media cangkok yang digunakan adalah campuran tanah dan kompos (perbandingan 2:1). Setelah tunas anakan berakar dalam bumbung, bibit vegetatif ini dapat disapih. Untuk mempercepat tumbuhnya akar, biasanya pada anakan diberi Rootone-F sebanyak 1%. Budi daya tanaman: Biji ditanam langsung dalam lubang, sebanyak 3-4 biji per lubang. Ukuran lubang dibuat 50 cm x 50 cm x 40 cm, jarak antar lubang 2 m x 4 m atau 3 m x 4 m. Setiap lubang diberi pupuk kandang sebanyak 10-20 kg. Sebulan kemudian, biji mulai tumbuh. Seleksi atau pembuangan tanaman yang tidak dipilih dilakukan setelah mulai berbunga, yakni setelah berumur tiga tahun. Dalam setiap lubang ditinggalkan satu pohon yang berbunga betina atau campuran. Tanaman jantan disisakan 10% dari populasi yang ditanam sebagai sumber pejantan. Pupuk buatan diberikan tiga bulan sekali sebanyak 25-500 g NPK (15-15-15) dan terus meningkat sesuai umur tanaman. Pada umur 1-3 tahun sebanyak 25-300 g per pohon, lalu umur 3-10 tahun sebanyak 300--500 g per pohon. Pada penanaman dengan cangkok, tiap lubang hanya ditanam satu bibit saja. Tanaman dijaga agar tetap lembap, cukup air, dan mendapat naungan. Leguminose dan Gliricidia (gamal) dapat digunakan sebagai naungan. Pelepah daun paling bawah dikurangi agar matahari masuk merata dan memudahkan pekerja pemeliharaan melewati jalan di antara barlsan tanaman.

Pemeliharaan tanaman salak yang penting adalah menjaga kebersihan kebun dan membuang tunas anakan yang muncul. Umumnya, pembuangan tunas anakan dilakukan setelah dicangkok dan terus hidup. Jumlah daun yang disisakan maksimum sekitar 17 helai. Pelepah daun dipangkas dengan gergaji atau sabit tajam. Dengan cara ini, sinar matahari dapat masuk ke kebun salak dan pengambilan buah pun mudah dilakukan. Biasanya, bakal buah sebesar kelereng tumbuh rapat sekali pada tiap tandan. Bakal buah perlu dibuang (penjarangan) agar buah salak tumbuh besar dan merata.

Hama dan Penyakit
Hama yang timbul pada tanaman salak adalah kutu wol (putih) atau Cerataphis sp. yang bersembunyi di sela-sela buah. Selain itu, kumbang (uret) atau omotemnus sp. sebagai penggerek tunas. Tupai dan tikus juga menjadi hama yang menjengkelkan. Hama ini dapat diatasi dengan Furadan 3 G dan semprotan insektisida Tamaron 0,3%. Penyakit yang sering tampak adalah noda hitam pada daun akibat cendawan Pestalotia sp. dan penyalat busuk merah (pink) pada buah dan batang oleh cendawan Corticium salmonicolor. Tanaman sakit dan daun yang terserang harus dipotong dan dibakar di tempat tertentu karena sulit dikendalikan.

Panen dan Pasca Panen
Buah salak dapat dipanen setelah matang benar di pohon, biasanya berumur enam bulan setelah bunga mekar (anthesis). Hal ini ditandai oleh sisik yang telah jarang, warna kulit buah merah kehitaman atau kuning tua, dan bulu-bulunya telah hilang. Ujung kulit buah (bagian buah yang meruncing) terasa lunak bila ditekan. Pemanenan buah dengan cara memotong tangkai tandannya. Hasil tanaman salak di Bali dapat mencapai 15 ton/hektar. Panen besar antara bulan Oktober-Januari.

Sumber : IPTEKnet